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European Journal of Orthodontics - current issue

Escrito por Instituto Dentário em . Publicado em Alimentadores de Notícias

European Journal of Orthodontics - current issue

One of the leading periodicals in its field, publishes scientific papers aimed at all orthodontists.

European Journal of Orthodontics Current Issue

  • AbstractObjectivesPaediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a range of changes in craniofacial and occlusal development. There is, however, little knowledge of how early in life these changes can be found. The aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in dental arch morphology, occlusion, facial profile, tonsil size, breathing habit or body mass index (BMI) can already be found among 2.5-year-old children with OSAS.Materials and MethodsFifty-two children were recruited to the study. Of these, OSAS was diagnosed in 9 children and 18 children did not snore in polysomnography. These two groups were subsequently compared when evaluating polysomnographic, otorhinolaryngological and dental variables.ResultsChildren with OSAS had narrower inter canine width than non-snoring children (P = 0.032). Furthermore, children with OSAS had larger adenoid size with respect to the nasopharyngeal volume (P = 0.020) and more tendency to mouth breathing (P = 0.002). No statistically significant differences were found when comparing palatine tonsil size, occlusal characteristics, soft tissue profile measurements or BMI.LimitationsThe limitation of the study is the small sample size.ConclusionChildren with OSAS had narrower upper inter canine width than non-snoring children at the age of 2.5 years. Larger adenoid size and mouth breathing tendency were also more common among children with OSAS. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine if other changes in craniofacial and occlusal development can be found in this age group.

  • AbstractObjectivesThis was a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomized, non-controlled prospective trial with the objective to evaluate and compare the effects of maximum advancement (MA) and incremental advancement (IA) of mandible with cast-splint-type Herbst-rapid palatal expander (RPE) appliance on pharyngeal airway dimensions and hyoid bone position in skeletal Class II late adolescents and young adults.Materials and methodsA total of 48 patients (19 male and 29 female, mean age: 15.45 ± 1.42 years) with skeletal Class II malocclusion were treated with cast-splint Herbst-RPE appliance. Inclusion criteria were skeletal Class II malocclusion, mandibular retrognathia, bilateral Class II molar and canine relationship, increased overjet, normal or decreased vertical dimensions, minimal crowding, and no missing teeth. Enrolled subjects were randomly allocated into two groups according to mandibular advancement type: IA and MA Herbst-RPE therapy. The outcome assessor was blinded. Advancement in MA group was adjusted until tête-à-tête incisor relationship or super Class I molar relationship was obtained. Initial forward movement in IA group was 4–5 mm and followed by bimonthly 2 mm of subsequent advancements. Skeletal, pharyngeal airway, and hyoid measurements were performed using lateral cephalometric films. Statistical significance was set at P value of less than 0.05.ResultsHypopharyngeal airway dimensions (P < 0.000), oropharyngeal airway dimensions (P < 0.001, P < 0.007), and PASmin values (P < 0.010, P < 0.009) were increased and soft palate angle (P < 0.018, P < 0.007) was decreased in MA and IA groups significantly. Hyoid bone measurements revealed a significant difference in H-Cv2 distance (MA: P < 0.002–P < 0.002; IA: P < 0.001—P < 0.043) and H-Cv3 distance (P < 0.005, P < 0.001) for both groups. However, all these changes did not differ among the MA and IA activation groups. ANB°, Wits, overjet, and overbite measurements decreased and SNB°, Co-Gn, Na-Me, ANS-Me, and S-Go increased with the treatment significantly in both mandibular advancement groups (P < 0.000–P < 0.040).ConclusionsHerbst-RPE appliance provided a similar improvement in the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal airway dimensions and similar changes in sagittal and vertical hyoid position for both maximum and IA protocols in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion.Trial registrationISRCTN69743543

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Dentistry is the science and art of preventing, diagnosing and treating disease, injuries and malformations of the teeth, jaws and mouth. Good dental hygiene and oral care are important to maintain healthy teeth, gums and tongues and to prevent and treat oral problems such as bad breath, dry mouth, tooth decay, cold sores and thrush.

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